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Transformation Journey

Dr. Lütfi Apilioğulları

Transformation is a continuous journey, not a destination. In the transformation journey, the first phase is segmentation. Segmentation involves identifying and clarifying customer needs and expectations. Since different customers have varying needs, we can’t serve them all with the same approach. By segmenting customers based on their needs, we can set up dedicated teams for each segment, a process known as value stream management. For example, a company might have two value streams: one for high-end products and another for low-end products. Understanding customer needs through segmentation is crucial as the starting point of the transformation journey.

In phase two of the transformation journey, the focus is on selecting the appropriate production methods for each value stream. To determine which methods to use, we need to conduct Pareto and ABC analyses to identify the best production methods for each SKU in the value stream. There are four main types of production methods: make-to-stock for A-type products, configure-to-order for B-type products, make-to-order for C-type products, and engineer-to-order for products that are not produced frequently. This phase is crucial because it helps ensure that products are produced according to their specific characteristics.

Phase three of the transformation journey involves setting the initial stage for the ValueStream. This stage focuses on identifying the stock positions within the ValueStream for raw materials, work in progress, finished goods, and components. To do this effectively, accurate data is crucial. Traditional forecasting methods are not sufficient, so machine-learning-based forecasting methods like Holt-Winters/Exponential Smoothing, or ARIMA are recommended. By analyzing QR values (quantity and reorder point) for each stock, we can manage stocks in the ValueStreams more effectively. Additionally, we ensure that each material/product is positioned correctly within the ValueStream, whether in the finished goods area or the raw material area. This phase marks the initial setup for the ValueStream.

Phase four of the transformation journey focuses on supporting the initial stages by establishing standards. This involves standardizing every process within the ValueStream using Lean Principles. Lean Principles include implementing just-in-time (JIT), Heijunka, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), and Jidoka concepts, along with smart applications, to ensure smooth material and information flow. Additionally, there’s a focus on improving the skills of the teams and staff, as skilled workforce is crucial for organizational development. In this phase, companies also aim to reduce waste (Muda) by conducting Kaizen events to streamline processes and reduce lead time. Key elements of Lean Principles such as Value, ValueStream, Flow, Pull, and Perfection must be implemented effectively in the manufacturing environment.

Phase five of the transformation journey involves moving to an Agile level, where companies adopt Agile approaches to position themselves well in the market. Agile supply chain management becomes crucial in this phase, focusing on strategic sourcing, network integration, market sensitivity, and information management. Companies must consider implementing these key pillars into their streams. Additionally, Agile product development, leveraging design thinking, and Agile project management play significant roles in this phase. Overall, integrating Lean, design thinking, and Agile concepts is essential for staying competitive in the market.

The final phase of the transformation journey is digital transformation, which many companies struggle with due to not completing the preceding five phases. Lean and Agile principles serve as the foundation of the transformation, while digitalization acts as the pillars that elevate it. Technology should be implemented on top of Lean and Agile principles. In this phase, the primary aim is to achieve CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems) structure, which involves integrating IT and OT. Companies typically begin by implementing either IT or OT, then proceed to integrate the other. Ultimately, the integration of IT and OT leads to CPS integration, facilitating the integration of digital systems within the overall ecosystem.

SO, in summary; The transformation journey encompasses six phases, each building upon the other to achieve comprehensive change. Phase one focuses on segmentation, understanding customer needs and expectations, while phase two involves selecting production methods tailored to each segment. Phase three establishes the initial stage for ValueStreams, identifying stock positions and leveraging machine-learning-based forecasting methods. In phase four, standards are established using Lean Principles, with a focus on improving team skills and reducing waste. Phase five shifts to an Agile level, emphasizing Agile supply chain management and Agile product development. Finally, phase six marks the digital transformation phase, where Lean and Agile principles serve as the foundation, and technology is implemented atop them, culminating in CPS integration to integrate digital systems within the overall ecosystem.

Dr. Lütfi Apilioğulları

Yönetim Danışmanı Lean | Agile | Digital​

Yirmi yılı aşan iş deneyiminde Mühendislik Müdürü, Operasyonel Mükemellik Direktörü ve Genel Müdür rolleri almıştır. Uzun yıllar Japon Sensei’ler ile birlikte çalışarak, kendisini “Toyota Üretim ve Yönetim Sistemleri”, “Çevik Üretim” ve “Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimi” konularında geliştirmiş ve sahada edindiği deneyimlere “Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimi” alanında doktora yaparak akademik bakış açısı da eklemiştir.

Farklı sektörlerdeki işletmelerde birçok dönüşüm / değişim sürecine sıra dışı danışmanlık metodolojisi ile liderlik eden Apilioğulları, 2010 yılından bu yana kendi kurmuş olduğu Lean Ofis danışmanlık şirketinde yerli / yabancı firmalara operasyonel mükemmellik, yalın dönüşüm, tedarik zinciri yönetimi, dijital dönüşüm ve değişim yönetimi konularında stratejik yönetim ve uygulama danışmanlığı hizmetleri vermektedir.

Fenerbahçe ve Bahçeşehir Üniversitelerinde de dersler veren Apilioğulları’nın üretim süreçleri ile ilgili yayımlanmış bir çok makale ve kitapları bulunmaktadır.

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akademi@leanofis.com

Dr. Lütfi Apilioğulları